Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

IDP in Educational Technology

An overview



Technology-Enhanced Learning of Thinking Skills

Teacher Use of Educational Technology

Technology-Enhanced Learning of Thinking Skills

  • Thinking skills (TS) are cognitive processes that human beings apply for sense-making and problem-solving.
    e.g: structuring open problems, knowledge integration, micro-macro thinking, convergent-divergent thinking, spatial skills
  • We have developed Technology Enhanced Learning Environments for Thinking Skills (TELoTS systems), based on the pedagogical strategies of inquiry-based learning, formative assessment and metacognitive reflection.
  • Learning activities in the TELoTS systems harness technology affordances such as interactive simulations, adaptive and personalized feedback, and pedagogical agents to provide the required instructional support.

Technology-Enhanced Learning of Thinking Skills

Technology-Enhanced Learning of Thinking Skills

Technology-Enhanced Learning of Thinking Skills

Teacher Use of Educational Technology

  • TUET focuses on developing theory-informed, research-evidence based
    • Model for large-scale teacher training (A2I2)
    • Frameworks as well as tools for authoring customized learning designs (CuVIS, LOTaAS)
    • Framework and tool for generation and evaluation of assessment instruments (IQuE) for teachers
  • TUET's objective is to empower teachers in effective technology integration practices in their own teaching learning context
  • TUET targets engineering education sector and instructor-mediated classroom teaching

Teacher Use of Educational Technology


TEL Environments

Tools for Teachers


Learning Analytics


Open Educational Resources

TEL Environments

IKnowIT Shitanshu

Tools for Teachers



Learning Analytics

  • Interactive Stratified Attribute Tracking (iSAT) is a visualization based cohort analysis technique that can reveal patterns of transitions that is implicit in a multi-attribute learning dataset.
  • We have built a free online tool to assist researchers and instructors to generate iSAT visualization of their dataset and interactively explore patterns that exists.
  • For example, given a dataset of student grades and activity measures in an online course and criteria to classify them in high-medium-low strata, phases in iSAT can visualize proportions of high, medium and low performers as well as engagement levels and further trace the patterns of transition between performance and engagement in that dataset.
  • Find out more here.


Open Educational Resources

ET Research Resources

  • ET Research resources created by IDP-ET consists of templates to conduct ET research studies :
    1. Idea Proposal Template (IPT)
    2. Study Proposal Template (SPT)
    3. Paper Planning Template (PPT)
    4. Paper Writing Template (PWT)
  • The templates offer scaffolds to the researcher during various stages of research, so that reviewers’ criteria are effectively addressed
  • 2000+ engineering teachers have been trained to use these templates
  • Refer RMET Handbook for more details
  • Visit this page for more details

Teaching Strategies Templates

  • Research based teaching strategy templates for learner centered in-class activities
  • Templates are organized as : Activity Constructors, Learning Design Blueprints, Bloom’s level learning objectives and assessment instrument, Evaluation rubric for instructor designed in-class learning activities and Other Open Education Resources
  • For more details visit this page.

Other Resources

Project OSCAR

Virtual Labs

Spoken Tutorial


Educational Technology for Engineering Teachers(ET4ET)

International Conferences

Educational Technology for Engineering Teachers(ET4ET)

International Conferences



Ph.D. Research Scholars


Post Doctorate Researcher


Adjunct Faculty

Visiting Faculty

Ph.D. Research Scholars



Post Doctorate Researcher

Teaching and Learning of Abstract Mathematical Concepts for Signals and Systems learners of Electrical Engineering Undergraduates

  • Signals and Systems is universally taught to sophomore or junior year Electrical Engineer undergraduates where they learn about fundamentals of Signals and Systems and analyses them using generalized mathematical models.
  • Due to heavy usage of generalized and Abstract Mathematical models, this subject poses a major difficulty in students' learning of underlying concepts. Furthermore, the disconnection of Abstract Mathematical Concepts from daily life makes it more difficult for students in visualizing and comprehending the nature of Abstract Mathematical constructs.
  • The goal of my work is to develop pedagogical solutions using technology-enhanced learning environment to teach Abstract Mathematical concepts to learners of Signals and Systems.

A technology-enhanced learning environment for engineering estimation skills

  • You are participating in an electric car race in which you are required to design an electric car of weight 7kg with wheel diameters of 4” that can accelerate at 1m/s^2 and traverse a track of 10m without burning out. Estimate the electrical power needed to achieve these specifications.” Professional engineers must regularly make estimates such as these wherein an unknown parameter must be determined to an order of magnitude accuracy. Often unclear to non-experts is, where to begin and what method to use to obtain a good estimate. How would you solve such a problem? Click here to know more.
  • The goal of my project is to design and evaluate a technology-enhanced learning environment to improve undergraduates engineering estimation skill.
  • My solution is a learning environment with features such as a mapping tool, variable manipulation simulation, equation builder and scaffolds for evaluation and reflection. An overview of my solution can be found here.

MEttLE - Modeling based Estimation Learning Environment

Development of Guidelines for Teaching and Learning with Virtual Labs in Engineering Education

 The virtual laboratories have been implemented in various parts of the world since many years and faculties from various science and engineering institutes are using these with many universities making them a part of the curriculum. But there are many problems faced by the faculties in the integration of these labs in their teaching.

 For the proper and effective implementation of any technology in teaching there is a need of guidelines. As part of this research we have developed comprehensive guidelines to help the faculties in integrating the virtual laboratories effectively in their teaching for four important aspects – decisions regarding learning objectives,virtual lab,tasks to be assigned and assessment questions to be asked. These are available online along with a tool which takes input from faculties on various decisions related to lab work such as learning objectives, tasks, assessment questions and generates a dynamic manual which cab be given to the students. The tool is available here.


  • Guides teachers on: selecting learning objectives and virtual labs aligned to it, designing activities and assessment questions aligned to learning objectives
  • Generates a dynamic lab manual for customized to teacher inputs on learning objectives, tasks, assessment questions
  • 82% of teachers using the tool found it useful in experiment design
  • Tool URL click here

Designing a TEL Environment for developing Micro to Macro Thinking Skill by Self Mediated Learning.

  • Identified features and designed a technology enhanced learning environment (MICOMAP) for developing students’ micro-macro thinking skills.
  • Developed a product in the form of tested learning material for developing micro-macro thinking for one topic in the field of Basic Electronics.
  • Students working with MICOMAP not only learn the subject based content knowledge but also develop micro-macro thinking skills.
  • High scoring students follow a typical interaction pattern which can be converted into teaching learning practices so as to gain most benefits from the system.

MICroscopic Observation MAcroscopic Predictions

MICOMAP is a Technology Enhanced Learning Environment which aims to develop students' Micro-Macro scientific thinking skill via self regulated learning. It has been developed and evaluated within the subject domain of Basic Electronics.

Teaching-learning of Hypothetico-deductive reasoning skill for science undergraduates

  • Identified that students face difficulties in developing hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
  • Proposing the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment, Geneticus Investigatio, which aims to develop hypothetico-deductive reasoning in the domain of genetics education for undergraduates
  • In this system, the student has to choose different hypotheses for a given problem, design experiments based on the hypothesis, predict the outcome of experiment, run simulations to test the prediction of the experiment, compare predicted and observed outcomes and accept or reject the hypothesis
  • The system requires that students reason at each and every step.
  • Students are provided with scaffolds in designing of experiment and prediction based on designed experiment.
  • This system utilizes the affordances of technology enhanced learning environment like variable manipulation in simulation, immediate and customized feedback and self-paced learning.

Development of divergent and convergent thinking through open problem based learning.

  • Consider the following open, real world problem- “Given a bank, that has thousands of customer records and wants to build an online service for its customers to check their account details online. The requirement of the online service is that the customer should get the response quickly once the request is given. Design an efficient solution for the above stated requirement.”
  • In this problem the students are required to generate multiple solutions and perform pros and cons analysis to find the efficient solution based on the requirements. This way students will be able to come up with better solution and justify the selected solution.
  • The process of generating multiple solutions is knows as divergent thinking and the process of evaluating and selecting the most desirable solution based on pros and cons analysis is known as convergent thinking.
  • Workplace demands people with skills to solve complex open problems.
  • Both divergent and convergent thinking skills are 21st century skill and training in these skills will improve the student’s competency to solve complex open problem efficiently.

Divergent and Convergent Tool (DC Tool)

Framework to enable instructors to create constructively aligned customized learning designs with visualizations (CuVIS)

  • CuVIS is an LD framework that guides instructors in steps to create effective LDs using visualization that are customized to instructor requirements of (a) learning objectives,(b) domain and (c) activity time duration and (d) instructor-mediated classroom setting.
  • Functioning:
    • Guides instructors to choose a visualization and a collaborative active learning strategy to implement the teaching-learning activity using visualization.
    • Provides conceptual guidelines to instructors on taking design decisions to operationalize constructive alignment, meaningful learning and frame group activity questions.
    • Provides LD Blueprint template for plugging in guideline responses leading to the final LD.
    • Conceptual guidelines and LD Blueprint vary with variation in objective and activity time duration inputs.


Customized Visualization Integration and Selection System

A2I2: A model to develop Short-term training program for Engineering College Teachers to enable Technology Integration in their Teaching Learning Practices.

  • To empower In-Service Engineering College instructors to practice learner-centered pedagogy for technology integration.
  • The Attain-Align-Integrate-Investigate model was developed which had its basis on Constructive Alignment and Teacher Action Research.
  • Use of Design Based Implementation Research Method (DBIR) to scale up the intervention.
  • Trained nearly 16000 Engineering college instructors through five workshops done in three different modes (face-to-face, blended online, massive open online).
  • Use of Community of Action Researchers Model and Instructional Activity constructors for ensuring sustainability of training benefits.

Computer Based Training for Improvement of Spatial skills

  • Spatial skills are important in various fields ranging from art and education to engineering and technology.
  • Spatial skills can be improved by computer based training.
  • Most existing techniques require weeks of training and are based on proprietary software.
  • We develop shorter duration training modules for improvement of spatial skills; we use Blender, an open source software.

Teaching and Learning of Troubleshooting Skills for Computer Science Undergraduates

  • A computer science graduate is expected to do basic troubleshooting of various types of systems (Problems related to operating systems, networks or application software).
  • The task of troubleshooting is ill-structured and students find it difficult to solve without efficient strategies and guidance.
  • We are trying to build a TEL environment called PHyTeR to teach the process of troubleshooting in the context of Computer Networks
  • In PHyTeR, students work on authentic scenarios, thus giving them practice and insights on phases of troubleshooting. It is based on a network simulator having scaffolds such as process history viewer, hypotheses prioritizer.
  • Please refer this page for more details.


PHyTeR - A system to learn Troubleshooting Skill in Computer Networks

A Collaborative approach to scaffold programming efficacy using spoken tutorials

 Scaffolding is a crucial framework of support for students engaging in Collabrative Learning environments, where scaffolding tools are used to engage and enhance learning experience of the learner. The existing literature tends to focus on computer-based scaf- folding approach to build programming skills and evaluate conceptual understanding of the learner through an instructional design model using spoken tutorial as a scaffolding tools using a collaborative learning platform. This design also focuses on content generation, peer review and evaluation, development of tools to enhance skill proficency and strengthen collabrative learning.

  WBeI Collaborative learning platforms are student-centric and are driven by the contirbution of students, who actively participate by learning new skills and reflect their conceptual understanding by contributing the content to the FOSS community from where they have learned these concepts. This model also helps in building interactive skills through collabrative tools build by the community to share and contribute resources to the learning platform. The present study focused on how spoken tutorial based WBeI scaffold programming efficacy and its evaluation by using combination of different types of computer-based procedural tools such as Spoken tutorials, wiki, forums, Programming Sandbox environments, Assessments

Development and assesment of engineering design competencies

  • Worked in the domain of developing engineering design competency (EDC).
  • Developed
    • TELE_EDesC a TEL environment for developing EDC.
    • Rubrics for assessment of EDC (kappa=0.89, SUS=72)
  • Designed Framework with Learning Dialogs (LD) for developing TEL environment for improving Structure Open Problem EDC.
  • Empirical study confirmed the effectiveness of LD prescribed by the framework.


TELE_EDesC is a TEL environment to develop engineering design competencies

Determining Interactivity Enriching Features for effective Interactive Learning Environments: Designing Interactivity Enriched Learning Environment in Signals and Systems Education

  • Inconsistent learning benefits in computer-based Interactive Learning Environments(ILEs) are examined.
  • We determine and design 'Interactivity Enriching Features (IEF)' that enriches interactivity to ensure effective learning from ILEs.
  • The research studies confirm that interactivity in ILEs could lead to higher learning only after getting augmented by IEFs, validating the learning effectiveness of IEFs.
  • The model-based approach ('Model for Interactivity Enriched Learning Environments' -MIELE) offers guidelines to instructional designers for designing apt interactivity to create educationally effective ILEs.

Interactive Simulations of Signals & Systems(IS3)

Framework for Generation and Evaluation of Assessment Instrument


Assessment Instrument Quality Evaluation System - Tool Demo


Assessment Instrument Quality Evaluation System - Teacher Training Demo

iSAT: An Interactive Visual Representation for Learning Analytics

  • Interactive Stratified Attribute Tracking (iSAT), an analysis methods to process multi attribute dataset, generate a meso-view and study transition patterns of records in that dataset.
  • Across three Design and Development Research (DDR) cycles, iSAT visualization evolved as an instantiation of the meso-view.
  • Available online tool to generate the visualization and interactively explore the transition patterns.
  • Evaluation showed iSAT is useful and usable for educational researchers and instructors.
  • Proliferating usage of this learning analytics method and tool by conducting workshops for stakeholders.


interactive Stratified Attribute Tracking Diagram

Developing students’ question posing and knowledge integration skills

  • Better knowledge integration is a desirable learning - teaching goal.
  • We have hypothesised that better exploratory questioning ability improves the learners' knowledge integration performances.
  • An online-collaborative learning strategy Categorize-Criticise- Discuss (CCD) has been proposed and implemented using a technology enhanced learning environment to train students on exploratory question posing.
  • Concept maps are used to assess students' knowledge integration performances.


Developing Knowledge Integration & Question Posing Skills

Technology framework for learning thinking skills in history

  • Objective: To help school students develop historical thinking skills
  • Generated visual notations to support learning historical thinking using participatory design
  • Created History-Maker, an interactive tool, for learners to analyse and interpret history using the given historical data by explicitly stating assumptions, arguments, perspectives, data sources, bias among other skills
  • Plan to carry out learning experiments to determine the effectiveness of the notation and the tool for developing historical thinking skills

History Maker

Developing a framework for scaffolding to teach programming to Hindi learners

  • Vernacular medium student have shown difficulties in understanding concepts in secondary language.
  • Language based Scaffolding
    • Replace complex general English words with it’s simple meaning
    • Use simple sentence structure
    • Explain the specialized or semi-specialized words on its first occurrence
  • Empirical studies with undergraduate CS students in vernacular medium highlights significant improvement in their performance.

Technology Enhanced Learning Environment for Developing Deductive Reasoning in Researchers

  • The ability to make deductions is a central component of human thinking. Deductive reasoning can be defined as “The process of inferring conclusions from known information (premises) based on formal logic rules, where conclusions are necessarily derived from the given information and there is no need to validate them by experiments”.
  • Researchers need to apply reasoning for a variety of tasks in research such as experiment design, data analysis and drawing inferences from their experiments.
  • In spite of its relevance, deductive reasoning skills are not taught explicitly and are assumed to be learned indirectly.
  • We position our work for junior graduate students who are starting their research and novice researchers.
  • Using our learning environment, various constructs like the research questions, hypothesis and conclusion can be written an appropriate specification language.


Technology Enhanced Learning Environment for Developing Decomposition Skills

  • It is important to train students to design solutions for real-world problems which are open-ended with incomplete information for example, “Design a Fingerprint based Automatic Teller Machine”.
  • For such problems ‘Decomposition Strategies’ has utility both in the problem analysis and solution generation.
  • It has been established that there exists difference between experts and novice use of this strategy.
  • My broad research goal is to improve engineering students' problem decomposition skill.
  • We are proposing a technology enhanced learning system that uses ‘Taxonomy of Decomposition Strategies based on Structure, Behaviour and Goals’ (Koopman, 1995)


Divergent and Convergent Thinking Skills in the context of Electronic Circuit Design

  • Engineering design process is often a confluence of multiple cognitive processes, taking the designers through known knowledge, problem identification, decomposition, unknown associations, exploration, pros and cons analysis, iteration and so on.
  • The design process can be daunting to a novice designer (Students), not trained in design thinking skills.
  • Divergent thinking (coming up with multiple solution possibilities) and Convergent thinking (narrowing to single appropriate solution) are two important Engineering design thinking skills.
  • Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) environments with appropriate learning activities and timely scaffolding, have been known to aid in teaching and learning of thinking skills.
  • Our goal is to design a TEL environment with learning activities for students that focus on Divergent and Convergent thinking in the engineering design process in the context of electronic circuit design


First Year Students

Developing Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Computing Education

  • Design of in-class activities based on active learning
  • Selection of learning theories (how information is absorbed, processed and retained) suitable for computing education
  • Measure the engagement of students and effectiveness of teaching strategy


  Research Development Outreach People